Hydroelectricity – Waterky http://waterky.org/ Wed, 03 Aug 2022 17:14:16 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://waterky.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-16-120x120.png Hydroelectricity – Waterky http://waterky.org/ 32 32 Ghana Needs Base Load Zero Emission Electricity – Dr Seth K. Debrah https://waterky.org/ghana-needs-base-load-zero-emission-electricity-dr-seth-k-debrah/ Wed, 03 Aug 2022 17:14:16 +0000 https://waterky.org/ghana-needs-base-load-zero-emission-electricity-dr-seth-k-debrah/ A worker (right) repairs a power line in Austin, Texas, in the United States, on Saturday. Photo: CGV Ghana requires zero emission base load electricity for sustainable and affordable electricity generation. The Akosombo Dam, which served as the country’s power base for six decades, has faced falling water levels due to climate vulnerability. Dr. Seth […]]]>

A worker (right) repairs a power line in Austin, Texas, in the United States, on Saturday. Photo: CGV

Ghana requires zero emission base load electricity for sustainable and affordable electricity generation.

The Akosombo Dam, which served as the country’s power base for six decades, has faced falling water levels due to climate vulnerability.

Dr. Seth K. Debrah, Director of the Nuclear Energy Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (NPI-GAEC), who expressed concern over the country’s energy sustainability, said Ghana “will have problems” if it does not adopt a green solution for the production of electricity.

In a presentation at a workshop for selected media professionals and editors at Peduase in the Eastern Region on Wednesday, Professor Debrah said nuclear power “is the next green baseload solution of Ghana”.

“Each plant has a lifespan. The Akosombo dam is 60 years old and the water level keeps dropping due to climate vulnerability.

“We are losing the climate battle and if we don’t consider zero emissions technology we will be in trouble,” he said.

“We are all asking for a district, a factory, but what energy and at what price do you use for the factories? He called on and rallied citizens to support the country’s efforts to go nuclear.

Organized by Nuclear Power Ghana (NPG), the three-day workshop for editors and journalists from the Ghana Mews Agency and selected editors from other media, was part of efforts to promote and sustain the participation of media by sharing knowledge and expanding information. focused on Ghana’s efforts to include nuclear energy as the country’s green energy solution.

The three-day workshop focuses on the theme: “Nuclear Security and Environmental Concerns; enhance public understanding.

Energy experts have warned that beyond 2025, the Akosombo and Kpong hydropower plants, which currently serve 32% as the country’s base load provider, would have dropped significantly to around 25%.

Ghana has therefore stepped up its efforts to add nuclear power to its energy mix – and the plan is to build and operate the country’s first nuclear power plant by 2030.

Ghana is also a signatory to the Paris Agreement on climate change, which obliges member countries to transition to a low-carbon economy and prevent average global temperatures from rising above two degrees Celsius.

The NPG was established in 2018 as a project organization to manage Ghana’s first nuclear power project.
The Organization has been designated as the eventual owner and operator of the first nuclear power plant.

Professor Debrah said that the creation of a nuclear power station, in addition to providing reliable and affordable energy, would also provide enormous economic opportunities.

He said the provision of technical services and training activities would also build local expertise in the field.

“It’s an industry that you can get into and change your economy…you can have almost 4,000 people there at once and other direct and indirect business opportunities,” Professor Debrah said.

Dr. Stephen Yamoah, Executive Director of NPG, said the selection of the preferred site for Ghana’s first nuclear power plant would be concluded by the end of the year.
Nana Ransford Tetteh, Chair of the GNA Board of Directors, commended NPG for working with GNA and urged attendees to engage citizens on nuclear energy prospects.

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11 DisCos fail to pay N485 billion for electricity supply in 16 months https://waterky.org/11-discos-fail-to-pay-n485-billion-for-electricity-supply-in-16-months/ Sun, 31 Jul 2022 13:18:41 +0000 https://waterky.org/11-discos-fail-to-pay-n485-billion-for-electricity-supply-in-16-months/ In 16 months, the 11 distribution companies (DisCos) in Nigeria lost the ability to pay 484.993 billion naira out of the 1.084 trillion in bills they received for electricity they received from generation companies. electricity (GenCos) between January 2021 and April 2022. . This development once again confirms the concerns of experts about the degraded […]]]>

In 16 months, the 11 distribution companies (DisCos) in Nigeria lost the ability to pay 484.993 billion naira out of the 1.084 trillion in bills they received for electricity they received from generation companies. electricity (GenCos) between January 2021 and April 2022. .

This development once again confirms the concerns of experts about the degraded state of the Nigerian electricity sector, which is facing a liquidity crisis, resulting in poor supply to consumers.

Daily Trust on Sunday Analysis of the latest Nigerian Electricity Market (NEM) payment receipt data from the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trading Plc (NBET) shows that almost all DisCos are in crisis. The crisis has become evident among six DisCos over the past eight months, prompting the takeover of Abuja DisCos by United Bank for Africa (UBA) following a default in November 2021.

There was a similar case with Fidelity Bank regarding Benin, Kaduna and Kano DisCos in July 2022, as well as Ibadan DisCo and Assets Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON), on behalf of the defunct Skye Bank. And the Port Harcourt DisCo had its top executives and board replaced this month to avoid collapse.

Minister of Energy, Engr Abubakar D. Aliyu

How the N485 Billion Debt is Driving the Electricity Market

The 11 DisCos received an energy bill of 1.08 billion naira in 16 months and on a commercial basis they were expected to pay this bill 100%. However, they paid 599.4 billion naira, or 55% of the total sum, and left a 45% debt of 484.9 billion naira.

According to a breakdown of payment on a monthly basis, DisCos received a higher energy bill during the May 2021 billing cycle at N71.98 billion, but the highest payment they made on the electricity market during the period was 40 naira. 2 billion in October 2021. While they received the lowest energy bill of 62.3 billion naira in September 2021, the lowest payout from DisCos was 31.1 billion naira recorded in August 2021 .

DisCos woes and benchmark failure

In an attempt to address liquidity issues with DisCos, the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC) in 2021 introduced Minimum Remittance Order (MRO).

The MRO stipulates an amount that each of the DisCos must contribute each month from payments received from the more than 10 million registered consumers to settle the energy purchase bill of the production companies (GenCos). On average, NERC constrained DisCos to about 75% of each monthly electricity supply bill they receive from GenCos, compared to 35% or less they paid in 2020.

Even at that, analysis of payment data from this document revealed that DisCos could not meet the government threshold of 813.781 billion naira or 75% minimum discount for energy of 1.084 trillion naira they received from January 2021 to April 2022.

The 11 DisCos fell short of the 214.3 billion naira debt called the Market Deficit (MS) assuming they complied with the figure (813 billion naira) that NERC forced them to pay during the period of the order, but they only handed over N599 billion.

When trolling the DisCos, the MRO figure (N813 billion) was N270.6 billion lower than the total energy bill of 1.084 tr, further breaking the cash cycle and leaving it as a huge tariff deficit (TS) which is a gap that could be filled in subsequent tariff revisions.

Explaining this in more detail, the NBET payment note states, “This is the portion of the bill that is currently being borne by the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) through various instruments implemented by the NBET until the market becomes fully competitive and a cost reflective tariff is adopted.

In summary, the tariff deficit of 270.6 billion naira and the market deficit of 214.3 billion naira represent the entire debt profile of 484.9 billion naira of the 11 DisCos during the period of 16 months under review.

The highest debt profile of all this N35.6 billion profile was recorded in January 2022 when DisCos received an energy debt of N72.3 billion and managed to erase N36.6 billion. naira, or just over 50%.

A new policy to the rescue?

On July 1, 2022, NERC activated a new electricity market regime based on contractual obligations to secure approximately 5,300 megawatts (MW) of daily electricity supply, while penalizing operators for default.

Although the target was not met, at least five DisCos had their boards and management reshuffled, based on insolvency and underperformance, which are measures to clean up the industry, according to experts.

UBA had in December taken control of Abuja DisCo due to default on the 2013 privatization acquisition loan. In the latest action, Fidelity Bank announced the takeover of Kaduna, Benin, Kano DisCos. Furthermore, the government (NERC and BPE) said that it reset Ibadan DisCo after its takeover by AMCON and also restructured Port Harcourt DisCo to stop its crash.

According to a NERC New Contract System Implementation Report, the average electrical insurance is expected to be 5,000 megawatt hours (MWH). Based on this, none of the 11 DisCos are expected to have at least 70% of their grid allocation each day, which is a guarantee of increasing the power supply to the over 10 million registered electricity consumers in Nigeria. .

But a NERC official told our reporter that the 5,000 MWH/H may not be reached immediately because hydroelectric companies expect the water level to rise from August, when they will increase the production.

He said, however, that NERC was working with the CBN to tap into an emergency power stabilization fund, which will increase DisCos’ revenue capacity to pay monthly energy bills.

“The GenCos will now have more funds to increase the gas supply to their power plants and improve the production of energy to be transmitted by the TCN,” noted the NERC official.

An analysis of network data indicates that the network is gradually recovering from the abyssal state it was in a month ago after the major system collapse. From 3,000 MW of peak generation on July 1, the grid gradually increased to reach 4,102 MW on July 8 before a slight drop to 3,992 MW on July 9. As of July 14, peak generation was 4,115 MW while baseline generation was 3,770 MW, approaching the baseline generation of 4,000 MW projected in the new dispensation with daily peak generation of 5,350 MW.

Debt trend must end to improve services – Experts

Electricity sector experts and analysts have called on the authorities for tougher reforms to ensure the accumulation of energy debt stops by getting better managers to operate DisCos and improve electricity supply services. electricity from Nigerians.

According to the moderator of the Nigerian Power Consumers Forum (NPCF), Mr. Michael Okoh, since the intervention of the CBN in escrowing the accounts of the DisCos, their leaders may have devised a way to under-report remittances.

He said they had paid the supposed sum they would have collected from consumers each month into the CBN fund, from which the apex bank allows them to pay salaries and other expenses before they can now pay for energy in bulk supplied to them by the GenCos via the NBET. .

“If NERC is strict with the contract-based electricity market, DisCos must be held accountable to pay the energy bills they receive and be penalized if they fail; and they have to supply consumers,” Okoh insisted.

On his part, Prof Yemi Oke, an expert in the power sector, expressed concern that more of the 11 DisCos are experiencing a crisis other than the five that were so dealt with in the recent reshuffle.

“80% of DisCos are technically insolvent; therefore, power sector problems may persist. We will continue to experience an average of five to six national network or system failures per year,” Oke noted.

The chairman of the Nigerian Consumer Protection Network (NCPN), Kunle Olubiyo, said electricity consumers applauded the actions taken by NERC and BPE, but blamed the authorities for failing to carry out a major review, five years after the start of the privatization of the electricity sector.

“Under the current circumstances, we are on the same page as affected stakeholders in the current effort to clean up the mess and unleash the economy held by its jugular by underperforming public services,” Olubiyo said.

This story was produced as part of Dataphyte’s 2022 Media Fellowship.

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Pandemic boosts cross-border power trade https://waterky.org/pandemic-boosts-cross-border-power-trade/ Sat, 30 Jul 2022 07:24:23 +0000 https://waterky.org/pandemic-boosts-cross-border-power-trade/ … The tariff benefits India Although the contraction of the Bhutanese economy by 10% with the Covid-19 pandemic is hitting all major sectors of the economy, 2020 has been a big year for the energy sector in Bhutan, the obvious reason being the commissioning of the Mangdechhu hydropower project and improvement of hydrology. However, there […]]]>

… The tariff benefits India

Although the contraction of the Bhutanese economy by 10% with the Covid-19 pandemic is hitting all major sectors of the economy, 2020 has been a big year for the energy sector in Bhutan, the obvious reason being the commissioning of the Mangdechhu hydropower project and improvement of hydrology.

However, there is another side to this. Domestic electricity demand fell by 14%, mainly due to the disruption of the manufacturing sector caused by the pandemic. This means that Bhutan has been exporting more electricity across the border since the power purchase agreements between India and Bhutan guarantee the surplus electricity market that Bhutan generates, after meeting its local demand. .

According to Bhutan Power Corporation (BPC) annual report, domestic sales fell by 14% from 2,280 million units (GWh) in 2019 to 1,961 million units in 2020. This is largely attributed to the Covid-19 pandemic, which led to subdued demand from high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage large consumers, with industrial consumption continuing to dominate domestic load at 72%.

While the Druk Green Power Corporation, the generation company, saw a 30% increase in production from approximately 8,600 million units to 11,300 million units of electricity, this is mainly due to the commissioning of the Mangdechhu project. Subsequently, BPC transported around 9,200 million units in 2020 to India, an increase from 6,163.19 MU in the previous year.

Excluding the Mangdechhu project from the equation, the DGPC still generated 7,628 million units of energy in 2020. This is now attributed to improved hydrology and the consequent increase in power plant output Tala, Chhukha, Kurichhu and Basochhu hydropower stations. Excluding Mangdechhu, a significant increase of 10% was observed at the level of production units against 5% the previous year.

Given the increase in generation and moderate domestic load, the country’s electricity exports hit an all-time high, earning INR 27 billion in 2020 from INR 16 billion in 2021. Even without Mangdechhu, the export of electricity could have easily reached INR 18 billion.

Since all of Mangdechhu’s production is for export, its tariff being almost double that of Chukha and Tala, it has generated adequate INR revenue for the country.

However, in the face of growing demand for energy, especially when industrial parks are being developed in the country, the DGPC predicts that local demand will reach over 7,500 million units by 2025 and approximately 2,100 million units of energy must be drawn. of Mangdechhu to meet local demand.

If there is no capacity addition in power generation, as local power demand increases in the near future, export volume will eventually drop.

However, Bhutan’s competitive advantage for its industries is access to cheap electricity and this is the only reason why many energy-intensive industries have been set up along the southern foothills of Bhutan near the Indian border. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with India allows Bhutanese industries to export their finished products to a large market in India with relatively lower import tariffs than other countries.

It is also estimated that for every unit of energy sold to energy-intensive industries, there is an added value of about Nu 7 to GDP. On the other hand, the export tariffs are much lower than those of the energy market in India.

This gives India the advantage to invest in Bhutanese hydroelectric projects and India stands to gain whenever Bhutan produces excess electricity. According to Power Trading Corporation of India (PTC) tariff filings, electricity from Bhutan is much cheaper than that produced by other distributors in India.

For example, according to PTC power prices for April this year, the government of Andhra Pradesh purchased power at INR 11.3 per unit from SembCorp Energy India Ltd. in the same state. The cheapest energy comes from Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Odisha, mainly exploited from renewables and some thermal power plants. However, the selling price, even for renewables, is at least INR 3.5 per unit, which makes hydropower from Chukha and Tala cheaper.

Compared to hydro power plants in India, where the minimum tariff starts from INR 5 per unit, electricity from Chukha and Tala are sold in the Indian market at INR 2.59 and INR 2.27 per unit, respectively. PTC records show that Tala and Chukha power plants in Bhutan are making electricity cheaper in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Sikkim, Bihar, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Punjab and Delhi. This is consistent with Form IV published by the PTC on a monthly basis highlighting the source and destination of energy and reflecting both the selling and buying price.

On the other hand, Mangdechhu’s tariff is a bit higher at just over INR 4 per unit, but it is still competitive on the Indian power exchange. The Indian side stands to gain from the prefixed tariff for a certain period of time, facilitating price predictability and this also determined under the cost plus model.

This, in turn, gives the hydro loan a self-liquidating and INR-generating status on the Bhutanese side, while the Indian side harnesses the benefits of cheap power. However, the rising cost of constructing the upcoming hydropower plants and the subsequent increase in tariffs could discourage India.

Contributed by

Chering Dorji

The story is covered by the Institute of

Happiness for research conducted on the effects of cross-border energy trade

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A man builds a hydroelectric plant that provides electricity to 100 homes – Malawi 24 https://waterky.org/a-man-builds-a-hydroelectric-plant-that-provides-electricity-to-100-homes-malawi-24/ Tue, 26 Jul 2022 08:49:32 +0000 https://waterky.org/a-man-builds-a-hydroelectric-plant-that-provides-electricity-to-100-homes-malawi-24/ John Sayilence led his community in the construction of a hydroelectric power plant which currently provides electricity to approximately 100 households in Mantchewe, Kachulu Traditional Authority in Rumphi. Sayilence, a high school dropout, built the Chipopoma hydroelectric plant with help from the community. Under Sayilence’s leadership, community members descended the cliff more than 250 meters […]]]>

John Sayilence led his community in the construction of a hydroelectric power plant which currently provides electricity to approximately 100 households in Mantchewe, Kachulu Traditional Authority in Rumphi.

Sayilence, a high school dropout, built the Chipopoma hydroelectric plant with help from the community. Under Sayilence’s leadership, community members descended the cliff more than 250 meters to install locally-made power generation equipment at Mantchewe Waterfalls.

With funding from local social enterprise owners, Sayilence had managed to procure a 50 KW generator, a locally made turbine, PVC pipes and two maize mills. The system began to operate by powering the community’s maize mill.

Matola (R) with Sayilence (in black)

According to Energy Minister Ibrahim Matola, who visited Sayilence on Saturday, the Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority (MERA) has recommended that the system be supported by stakeholders to make it safe.

One of the houses benefiting from the project

United Nations Development Program – UNDP also stepped in and through the Increasing Access to Energy Project and successor project ACRE, in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy, upgraded the power plant and expanded a mini-grid that can now power a corn mill, a Home Crafts Cooperative, Elementary School, Yewo Jewelry Center, and Mushroom Farm Tourist Attraction Center.

Speaking to local media, Sayilence thanked UNDP for supporting the initiative with the construction of a 3.5 kilometer electricity distribution network and a 9-mile mini-volt power line network. 5 kilometers.

“We do, however, have some shortcomings which include but are not limited to the lack of a calibrated invoicing system. We do not have an office or computers that we can use to develop a computerized invoicing system,” said Sayilence.

According to Matola, the UNDP is assisting in the purchase and installation of a proper billing system that would allow the sale of tokens.

“Currently they charge a flat monthly fee of Mk2,500 per connected household for unlimited usage. This is insufficient to fund the project as it costs more to repair the machines if they malfunction than what is raised,” Matola said.

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Completion of power supply agreement between Zimbabwe and Zambia welcome https://waterky.org/completion-of-power-supply-agreement-between-zimbabwe-and-zambia-welcome/ Sun, 24 Jul 2022 22:11:42 +0000 https://waterky.org/completion-of-power-supply-agreement-between-zimbabwe-and-zambia-welcome/ The Chronicle FOR about 10 days, the country has been experiencing prolonged power cuts; strong winter demand and breakdowns of production facilities aggravating historically low production capacities. A few days ago, the country lost a unit that produces 125 MW at the Kariba hydroelectric plant. The Hwange and Harare coal-fired power plants also underperformed. This […]]]>

The Chronicle

FOR about 10 days, the country has been experiencing prolonged power cuts; strong winter demand and breakdowns of production facilities aggravating historically low production capacities.

A few days ago, the country lost a unit that produces 125 MW at the Kariba hydroelectric plant. The Hwange and Harare coal-fired power plants also underperformed.

This drastically reduced production, hence the long periods without electricity for the country.

Fortunately, respite is on the way.

The country will start receiving 100MW from Zambia’s state-owned ZESCO early next month under a five-year deal, our sister newspaper The Sunday Mail reported yesterday.

ZETDC

Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission and Distribution Company (ZETDC) Acting Managing Director Mr Howard Choga said ZESCO demanded to be paid before delivering the electricity.

“We signed electricity import agreements with Zambia a long time ago, but we were not getting electricity from there due to cash flow problems,” he said.

“Now, because we have prepaid, we expect this to be settled in the coming weeks and we will start receiving 100MW from Zambia.

We have to prepay them one month before receiving the electricity.

With 100 MW secured from Zambia, ZETDC will expect Mozambique to add 150 MW to the 50 MW it already exports to us.

A team from Mozambique was expected here yesterday for a week-long visit during which the deal to increase feed is expected to be sealed.

Mr. Choga said:

“We are getting 50 MW from Cahora Bassa and 50 MW from EDM in Mozambique.

We had signed an agreement for 200 MW with EDM, but we only had access to 50 MW.

So they are sending a delegation to the country tomorrow (today) and they will be in the country for the whole week, so we will discuss how we can access the remaining 150 MW.

Hopefully the Mozambique talks would be successful.

If this happens, the country’s energy supply would be increased by 250 MW.

This will be a welcome addition to the 1,201 MW average that we produce locally.

After enduring probably our worst load shedding in recent months, as Energy and Power Development Minister Zhemu Soda told parliament on Wednesday, we look forward to imported power arriving as soon as possible. and for underperforming local units to return to maximum production. .

The need for enough electricity is obvious.

Electricity is the engine of an economy, hospitals need it to preserve the health and life of patients and households need it for cooking, lighting, etc.

Without it, activities come to a halt, health facilities struggle to provide essential services and homes become dysfunctional.

We therefore commend the government, through the ZETDC, for finalizing the Zambian transaction and moving the Mozambican transaction forward.

Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC)

We also hope that the Zimbabwe Power Company is working hard to get the failed Kariba unit back to work and ensure the overall stability of the system so that the country has a reliable power supply.

Hwange Thermal Power Plant is expected to start delivering new generation as planned when one of the two 300MW units under construction comes into operation around October and the other by the March quarter of 2023.

This would increase the general availability of electricity while improving local production. The industry will work well.

Previously, ZETDC struggled to obtain enough foreign exchange to finance the import of electricity.

However, this time, we are sure that a recent government decision allowing ZETDC to invoice exporting companies in foreign currencies will help mobilize adequate resources for the parastatal to settle its invoices with foreign suppliers.

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Switzerland’s massive water battery will stabilize Europe’s power grids https://waterky.org/switzerlands-massive-water-battery-will-stabilize-europes-power-grids/ Fri, 22 Jul 2022 23:49:27 +0000 https://waterky.org/switzerlands-massive-water-battery-will-stabilize-europes-power-grids/ The construction of a 900 MW “water battery”, which cost Switzerland two billion euros and lasted 14 years, is finally operational. It went live on July 1, 2022. The battery is located in the Swiss Alps, nearly 2,000 feet (600 meters) underground, and can store energy from 400,000 electric vehicle batteries. That’s enough juice to […]]]>

The construction of a 900 MW “water battery”, which cost Switzerland two billion euros and lasted 14 years, is finally operational. It went live on July 1, 2022. The battery is located in the Swiss Alps, nearly 2,000 feet (600 meters) underground, and can store energy from 400,000 electric vehicle batteries. That’s enough juice to power 900,000 homes at once!

Why is this water battery important?

(Credit: pxhere)

Renewable energy sources will become increasingly popular as the world strives to become more sustainable. However, these technologies provide intermittent power because they depend on weather (wind) or time of day (solar). That means we also need to find a way to store the electricity it generates for times when it can’t produce enough.

Dense batteries offer a solution to this problem. Yet they require minerals like cobalt, nickel and lithium to be mined – a practice that is detrimental to the environment and to sustainability efforts. The water battery requires no material consumption and will never need to be replaced.

Alain Sauthier, director and engineer of the Nant de Drance pumped storage hydroelectric plant, said:

“It’s an ecological battery that always uses the same water. Efficiency is over 80%: for every kilowatt hour of electricity used to pump water upstream, 0.8 is injected into the network. In less than ten minutes, the direction of rotation of the turbines can be reversed and switch from electricity production to storage.

This flexibility is essential to react quickly to the needs of the electricity network and to adapt the production and consumption of electricity. Otherwise, you risk a grid collapse and blackout, as happened in Texas earlier this year. In the future, it will be increasingly necessary to store large quantities of electricity, as renewable sources gradually replace nuclear and fossil energies.

The 20 million kWh water battery should help stabilize the Swiss and European energy systems. Moreover, it is so massive that it can store more energy than Switzerland needs, which is why it can also serve other countries in Europe.

Sauthier continues:

“This can play a role in stabilizing the network at European level. We are geographically at the heart of the continent and energy flows pass through Switzerland. If there is an overproduction of wind energy in Germany, we can use the excess electricity to pump and store water.

For example, during peak demand, such as a heat wave, the battery can minimize grid overload.

What is a water battery?

A water battery, also called a pumped storage power station, is a form of hydroelectric energy storage system. The battery is made up of two huge pools of water spaced at varying heights from each other.

By pumping water from the lower basin to the upper basin, the battery “charges” itself, storing additional energy generated by renewable energy sources. The water flow is reversed to “discharge” or use the stored electricity.

How does a water battery generate electricity?

Like other forms of hydroelectric power, electricity is generated by the movement of water through a turbine. In the case of the Swiss water battery, there are nine giant turbines between the two pools. As the water flows from one pool to another, it passes through the turbines and these generate electricity.

Why did it take 14 years to complete the water battery?

Switzerland's massive water battery will stabilize Europe's power grids
(Credit: Nant de Drance)

The battery was built between the Valais, the Vieux Emosson and Emosson reservoirs in Switzerland. The plant’s vast engine room, 650 feet (200 meters) long and 100 feet (32 meters) wide, lies 600 meters (2,000 feet) underground. It’s a space big enough to hold the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

So the engineers had to dig tunnels through the Alps to transport building materials. These tunnels are approximately 11 miles long (18 kilometers)! It was only after the tunnels were built that the construction materials and prefabricated structures could be transported up the mountain to make the battery.

In addition, the Vieux Emosson dam was raised by 20 meters to increase the energy storage capacity of the battery.

The potential of a water battery revolution

According to Matthew Stocks of the Australian National University, there are 616,000 places worldwide where closed loop hydro-pumping facilities could be developed. Stocks is a researcher who based his judgment solely on geographic factors. According to him, installing just 1% would be enough to eliminate all the difficulties associated with intermittent energy sources.

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity is a well-established technique. Excited by its potential, Switzerland, together with 11 other nations, is taking part in an international event to relaunch the development of pumped hydro storage in electricity markets.

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Inflation-hit new electricity bills piss off consumers https://waterky.org/inflation-hit-new-electricity-bills-piss-off-consumers/ Thu, 21 Jul 2022 01:00:00 +0000 https://waterky.org/inflation-hit-new-electricity-bills-piss-off-consumers/ Islamabad: The new electricity bill coupled with rising prices and inflation has made people wonder if they are middle, lower middle or lower class. Consumers of different power supply companies including Islamabad Electric Supply Company (Iesco) are expected to pay Rs 7.99 per unit as a fuel adjustment charge in electricity bills for the month […]]]>

Islamabad: The new electricity bill coupled with rising prices and inflation has made people wonder if they are middle, lower middle or lower class.

Consumers of different power supply companies including Islamabad Electric Supply Company (Iesco) are expected to pay Rs 7.99 per unit as a fuel adjustment charge in electricity bills for the month of June.

One of the consumers living in Satellite Town, Rawalpindi said he received Rs 6163 for 235 units including Rs 2281 in fuel adjustment charge while he paid bills of Rs 4743 for the use of 268 units for the month of May this year.

Another consumer said he paid Rs4117 for 215 units for the month of May while he now received a bill of Rs5743 for using 211 units in electricity bills for the month of June.

The bill also includes Rs2300 as a fuel adjustment charge. This way, he said each unit would cost him more Rs27.

Meanwhile, vegetable prices also showed an upward trend at the Municipal Corporation of Islamabad (MCI) weekly bazaars where according to the price list, the price of Lokee (Kaddu) was Rs125 per kilogram and lady finger was sold for Rs96 per kilogram.

Onion and potato prices are also on the rise with Rs456 and Rs280 per five kilograms while good quality fruits except pear which were selling at Rs100 to Rs120 per kilogram at the weekly bazaar.

The majority of people in the weekly bazaars, whether merchants, customers or vendors, were unhappy with the current government and believed that the regime had paid the price for its blunder in the form of a defeat in the Punjab by-elections. .

However, many critics believe that the previous government also failed to complete hydropower projects on time, nor did it purchase LNG in a timely manner at relatively low rates. “If the previous PTI government had been successful, we could get cheaper electricity,” they think.

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Renewable energy stocks to watch amid power market reforms https://waterky.org/renewable-energy-stocks-to-watch-amid-power-market-reforms/ Tue, 19 Jul 2022 07:34:00 +0000 https://waterky.org/renewable-energy-stocks-to-watch-amid-power-market-reforms/ The British government on Monday launched a review of the structure of the country’s electricity market with the aim of significantly improving energy security and significantly reducing electricity costs for long-term users. The major changes proposed by the government would help reduce soaring energy bills, which have hurt Britons amid the escalating cost of living […]]]>

The British government on Monday launched a review of the structure of the country’s electricity market with the aim of significantly improving energy security and significantly reducing electricity costs for long-term users. The major changes proposed by the government would help reduce soaring energy bills, which have hurt Britons amid the escalating cost of living crisis.

The Review of Electricity Market Arrangements (REMA) will attempt to find and understand different options to address current energy challenges. Some of the changes consulted as part of the review include the introduction of incentives for users to obtain cheaper energy from the grid in the event of high generation or low demand, capacity market reforms to stimulate the use of low-carbon technologies and the decoupling of cheaper renewable energies. expensive fossil fuels.

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Under the current system, wholesale electricity prices are mainly determined by gas prices. But, as cheaper renewable alternatives become more popular, they will eventually have a bigger impact on wholesale prices and bring them down. The proposed consultation would support changing the current pricing system and reducing overall energy costs while increasing the use of cheaper and cleaner electricity.

With energy demand forecast to double by 2035, these changes will play an important role in keeping the energy market on track and helping households cope with rising bills. As renewable energy gains prominence, UK investors can keep an eye out for the following renewable energy stocks with bright prospects.

Greencoat UK Wind plc (LON: UKW)

Greencoat UK Wind plc is a special purpose manager which gives investors exposure to the wind power and other renewable energy sectors. The FTSE 250 index has a market capitalization of £3,577.99 million as of July 19. With a positive EPS of 0.18, Greencoat offers investors an annual dividend yield of 4.7%. As of July 19, the company’s year-to-date and year-to-date returns are in the positive zone, at 15.99% and 9.89%, respectively. UKW shares were trading at 154.40 GBX as the market opened around 8:00 a.m. (GMT+1) on Tuesday.

The Renewable Infrastructure Group (LON: TRIG)

The Renewables Infrastructure Group falls under the FTSE 250 index and has a market capitalization of £3,349.35 million as of July 19. With a positive EPS of 0.10, Renewables Infrastructure Group offers investors an annual dividend yield of 5.0%. As of Tuesday, the company’s year-to-date and year-to-date returns were 6.39% and 0.37%, respectively. TRIG shares were trading at 134.80 GBX, down 0.15%, as of 8:10 a.m. (GMT+1) on Tuesday.

Downing Renewables & Infrastructure Trust plc (LON: DORE)

Downing Renewables & Infrastructure Trust plc is a trust that invests in wind, solar, hydropower and other renewable energy assets. The company has a market capitalization of £205.85 million as of July 19. Downing Renewables & Infrastructure Trust offers investors an annual dividend yield of 3.2%. As of July 19, the company’s year-to-date and year-to-date returns are in the positive zone, at 13.33% and 7.56%, respectively. TRIG shares were trading at 111.50 GBX as of 08:15 (GMT+1) on Tuesday.

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The US EIA projected the future of electricity generation in 2001. Why were they so wrong? https://waterky.org/the-us-eia-projected-the-future-of-electricity-generation-in-2001-why-were-they-so-wrong/ Sun, 17 Jul 2022 17:04:08 +0000 https://waterky.org/the-us-eia-projected-the-future-of-electricity-generation-in-2001-why-were-they-so-wrong/ By James Morton Turner, professor of environmental studies at Wellesley College and author of the forthcoming book Charged: A History of Batteries and Lessons for a Clean Energy Future. He published the lead editorial in the journal Sciencein its special climate change issue two weeks ago (June 24, 2022). In 2001, the United States Energy […]]]>

By James Morton Turner, professor of environmental studies at Wellesley College and author of the forthcoming book Charged: A History of Batteries and Lessons for a Clean Energy Future. He published the lead editorial in the journal Sciencein its special climate change issue two weeks ago (June 24, 2022).

In 2001, the United States Energy Information Administration looked into its crystal ball and forecast the future of the United States’ electricity supply to the year 2020. Looking back, there is much to learn from this that the EIA got right and, if you care about the future of clean energy, what went wrong.

The EIA predictions looked much more the same. In short, they expected the beginning of the 21st century to look a lot like the end of the 20th century. They predict more coal, a small role for renewables and steady growth in total electricity demand. The only major change predicted by the EIA was a boom in the use of natural gas for power generation.

For natural gas, at least by the numbers, it seems the EIA got it right. As the agency had predicted, electricity production from natural gas has almost tripled. But the EIA expected the change to be driven primarily by the use of lower-cost, more efficient natural gas generators in electric utilities.

But that was only part of the story. What the agency missed was how much natural gas supply would change. Even in 2001, no one anticipated how hydraulic fracturing would transform the natural gas industry by increasing supply and keeping prices stable. In 2020, fractured natural gas accounted for two-thirds of national natural gas production.

The EIA did not anticipate the coal meltdown. In 2001, it seemed that America’s reliance on coal for power generation was a no-brainer. The EIA predicted that coal-fired electricity generation would increase by 27% between 2001 and 2020. As we now know, the reverse has happened. With the boom in natural gas production, the use of coal for power generation has fallen by 60%.

What explains the decline of coal? The obvious answer is the rise of natural gas. But that would amount to neglecting the role of renewable energies and the evolution of global electricity demand. In 1999, the EIA did not expect non-hydro renewables to be a major source of electricity. Whatever growth he anticipated, he expected to come from the burning of biomass and municipal solid waste (we can leave aside the question of whether these should be considered “ renewables”).

What is the role of wind and solar power? In the 2001 EIA analysis, this was not the case. The agency expected wind and solar to represent a rounding error in their analysis, barely adding up 0.5% of American electricity demand in 2020. And, on this point, the forecasts were terribly wrong. Wind and solar grew at a record pace after 2000, reaching 12% of U.S. electricity demand in 2020. That was twenty times more than the EIA forecast in 2001.

Why was the EIA so out of step when it came to wind and solar power?

Why was the EIA so far away? According to her, the high cost of renewable energy would continue to limit deployment. The agency could not foresee policies that would give renewables a head start in the early 2000s – including net metering for solar power and investment tax credits to support renewables . But, more importantly, the agency hadn’t expected the price of wind and solar to fall much faster than expected, especially as deployment began to expand.

The other interesting projection is the EIA forecast for total electricity demand. Even though the EIA adopted lower projections for electricity demand, based on the adoption of new efficiency standards and the adoption of more efficient equipment, it still expected that global demand for electricity increases by 34% by 2020. But it turns out that the transition to LED bulbs (and many other efficiency improvements) add up. Overall electricity demand increased by only 14%.

Put it all together and it reveals one final surprise. In 2001, the EIA predicted that CO2 emissions from electricity generation would increase by 28% to 2.73 billion metric tons in 2020. But slowing growth in electricity demand, the The rise of renewable energy and the switch to natural gas have radically changed the CO2 intensity of the electricity sector. In 2020, actual CO2 emissions from electricity totaled 1.55 billion metric tons, 43% lower than the EIA forecast in 2001. This means that US CO2 emissions from the electricity sector electricity are lower than they were in 1990, even though electricity production has increased by 33%. .

What lessons can we learn from the EIA’s energy projections as we anticipate a clean energy transition? The first lesson is how difficult it is to anticipate, let alone foresee, the rapid transformation of the electricity sector. This points to the second lesson. History reminds us that change can happen much faster than expected. And right now, given the urgency of tackling climate change, we need a lot of change.

This article is adapted from the forthcoming book by James Morton Turner, Charged: A History of Batteries and Lessons for a Clean Energy Future (August 2022). You can learn more about Accused at http://charged-the-book.com


 

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Bitcoin Mining: How Much Electricity Does It Take and Why People Are Worried https://waterky.org/bitcoin-mining-how-much-electricity-does-it-take-and-why-people-are-worried/ Thu, 14 Jul 2022 13:55:51 +0000 https://waterky.org/bitcoin-mining-how-much-electricity-does-it-take-and-why-people-are-worried/ Tesla CEO Elon Musk shook up the crypto market in 2021 when he said his company would no longer accept bitcoin for vehicle purchases. His reasoning had to do with the large amount of energy generated by fossil fuels that is needed to operate cryptocurrency. Musk has since taken a new approach by delivering Tesla […]]]>

Tesla CEO Elon Musk shook up the crypto market in 2021 when he said his company would no longer accept bitcoin for vehicle purchases. His reasoning had to do with the large amount of energy generated by fossil fuels that is needed to operate cryptocurrency. Musk has since taken a new approach by delivering Tesla Megapack batteries to a bitcoin mining facility in Texas in May.

Bitcoinethereal, dogcoin and other popular cryptos reached records in 2021just like crypto-dependent NFT, raising concerns about the increasing amount of energy required to mine the coins. As the crypto markets crashed in 2022, crypto mining has continued to consume about as much energy as Argentina and have a carbon footprint equivalent to that of Greece, according to a research report titled “Revisiting Bitcoin’s Carbon Footprint,” published in February. As the energy bill of cryptocurrency mining increases, so does the amount of carbon and waste, adding to the growing climate crisis.

Here’s what you need to know about crypto mining and its energy uses.

What is Crypto Mining?

When bitcoins are traded, computers around the world race to perform a calculation that creates a 64-digit hexadecimal number, or hash, for that bitcoin. This hash goes into a public ledger so anyone can confirm that the transaction for that particular bitcoin took place. The computer that solves the calculation first gets a reward of 6.2 bitcoins, or about $120,000 at current prices.

Other cryptocurrencies and NFTs use similar mining technologies, contributing to overall power consumption.

What is a crypto-mining platform?

It’s a barebones computer with several graphics cards, or GPU, instead of the single-board standard, and it does the work to perform a computation. The rigs typically use powerful GPUs from Nvidia and AMD to handle the computations and require high-powered power supplies. The popularity of mining has led to a shortage of graphics cards, which has led to an increase in their value.

A crypto mining farm, in shades of green and blue, in Nadvoitsy, Russia.

A crypto-mining farm in Nadvoitsy, Russia.

Getty Images

Why is crypto mining so energy intensive?

For starters, graphics cards in mining rigs work around the clock. This takes a lot more power than browsing the internet. A rig with three GPUs can draw 1,000 watts or more when running, which is equivalent to having an average-sized window AC unit turned on.

Crypto mining companies can have hundreds or even thousands of rigs in one place. A mining center in Kazakhstan is equipped to operate 50,000 mining rigs, and another mining farm in China has a monthly electricity bill of over $1 million as it mines 750 bitcoins per month.

Platforms not only consume energy, they also generate heat. The more platforms you have, the hotter it gets. If you don’t want your rigs melting, you need some cooling. Many mining rigs have multiple built-in computer fans. But if you have multiple rigs, the room gets hot quickly, requiring external cooling. Small operations, such as those run by individuals, can get by with a typical standing fan. Mining centers, however, need much more cooling, which requires even more electricity.


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How much energy does mining take?

The Digiconomist’s Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index estimated that a bitcoin transaction requires 1,449 kWh, equivalent to about 50 days of electricity for an average US household.

To put this in monetary terms, the average cost per kWh in the United States is close to 12 cents. This means that a bitcoin transaction would generate approximately an energy bill of $173.

Bitcoin mining uses about as much energy as Argentina, according to the Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index, and at that annualized level of 131.26 terawatt hours, crypto mining would be in the top 30. countries based on energy consumption.

Power consumption for bitcoin mining was at its highest in late 2021 and the first months of 2022, consuming over 200 terawatt hours.

A wall of crypto-mining rigs

A wall of mining platforms in Quebec, Canada.

Getty Images

Why is consuming so much energy bad for the environment?

Fossil fuels make up more than 60% of energy sources in the United States. A majority of this percentage is natural gas and a minority is coal. Carbon dioxide produced by fossil fuels is released into the atmosphere, where it absorbs heat from the sun and causes the greenhouse effect.

As mining rigs consume more energy, nearby power plants must produce more electricity to compensate, increasing the likelihood that more fossil fuels will be used. States with struggling coal-fired power plants, such as Montana, New York, and Kentucky, are trying to profit by courting crypto mining companies.

There is also the question of electronic waste. This can include broken computers, cables, and other equipment that the mining facility no longer needs. Bitcoin Mining’s e-waste is 34 kilotons, an amount comparable to the amount produced by the Netherlands.

What are we doing about this energy problem?

Not a lot. Cambridge University’s 3rd Global Crypto-Asset Benchmarking Study found that 70% of miners base their decision on which coin to mine on the daily reward amount. Energy consumption was only 30% of their choice.

Access to low-cost renewable energy attracts crypto miners, however. China’s Sichuan province has the second-largest number of miners in the country due to its abundance of cheap hydroelectric power. Its rainy season helps generate so much energy that cities are looking for blockchain companies to relocate to avoid wasting energy. Due to concerns over energy shortages, China cracked down on bitcoin mining facilities in late 2021, but farms went underground and bounced back.

The operators of Ethereum, the second most popular blockchain behind Bitcoin, are doing something to change the amount of energy consumed by its miners. Ethereum 2.0 is an upgrade that is currently being tested and is expected to go live in August. Instead of computers trying to solve calculations – called proofs of work – computers will be randomly selected to create blocks for the blockchain, while computers that were not selected will validate the blocks created.

To ensure that miners do their job, each miner must stake 32 Ethereum coins, also known as ether, which equals $32,000, hence the term for this protocol is called proof-of-stake. This change reduces the amount of energy needed to mine Ethereum by 99.95%.

What other cryptos are more energy efficient than bitcoin?

An increasing number of coins – there are over 19,000 – are using the proof-of-stake protocol that Ethereum 2.0 will transition to, which will lead to lower power consumption.

Cardano, for example, uses its own proof-of-stake protocol and consumed 6 gigawatt hours in 2021. Chia is another coin with a low-power approach called proof-of-space protocol. Instead of requiring intensive calculations, Chia asks farmers to allocate space on a computer’s hard drive, called “plots”, which will be demanded by the blockchain based on certain factors.

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